REL 21 (Identical to JWST 60)

Judaism in Late Antiquity: The Rabbinic Revolution

The course begins with a survey of the development of Judaism from a Persian-era temple religion into the religion of the synagogue and the academy in response to Greco-Roman civilization and its eventual Christianization. The course engages the students in careful interrogation of texts from the Mishna and the Talmud to recover the theological and experiential contours and concerns of a religious world in formative transition. Some of these developments are then traced through the Middle Ages to early modernity. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

REL 22 (Identical to JWST 61)

Modern Judaism

This course will concentrate on modern Jewish thought in the period beginning with Spinoza's challenge to the Bible. In turn, a figure of the Enlightenment (Moses Mendelssohn), then founder of neo-Orthodoxy (S. R. Hirsch), then the central figure of Reform (Abraham Geiger), and such later figures as Martin Buber, Ahad H'Am, and Franz Rosenzweig will be read and discussed. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

REL 23 (Identical to JWST 62)

Jewish Mysticism

The course examines the nature of claims to mystical experience or knowledge that appear in various aspects of the Jewish tradition, with primary focus on the enchanted and demonic worlds of the Kabbala. Forms of ecstasy and magic will be studied, along with their theoretical and social backgrounds and their impact on elitist and popular Jewish practice. Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

REL 24 (Identical to JWST 63)

Jewish Philosophers of Religion

The course is conducted through close reading and discussion of works by Spinoza, Buber, and Levinas that translate insights from the Jewish experience to the idiom of modern European culture and, in so doing, make unique contributions to such subjects of modern religious thought as: God and infinity; religion, morality, and politics; autonomy and transcendence; and the role of Jewish intellectuals in the modern era.  Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

REL 25

Islamic Mysticism (Sufism)

An introduction to Sufism, using primary texts, films, and recordings. The course will first trace the development of Sufism, including its Christian and Hindu heritage. Then, using a Sufi manual of instruction, students will work their way through one influential approach to Sufi metaphysics. Finally, using films and recordings, the class will consider the rituals, practices, and role of the Sufi orders of Islam in Islamic history. Desirable background: Religion 1, 8, or another College course on Islam or Islamicate culture, or permission of the instructor. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

REL 26

Islam in America

This course will consider North American Islam as a particular instance of Islam. The Islam of slaves, nineteenth-century converts to Islam, varieties of Black Islam, New Age Islam and Sufism, and immigrant Islam – including contemporary social and political developments – will all be topics of this course. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

REL 27

The Qur’an and the Prophet

The Qur’an and the Prophet Muhammad are the source and center of Islam. In this course we will consider the form and content of the Qur’an and the form and content of various accounts of the Prophet’s life: the hadith or anecdotes of the Prophet’s life, the sirah, or biography of Muhammad, and the maghazi, or accounts of the Prophet’s battles and campaigns. Topics covered include the aural Qur’an, the dating of the Qur’an and the hadith, diverse images of the Prophet, and “what can we know about the life of Muhammad?” Desirable background: A College course on Islamic history, culture, or society, including Religion 8 and Religion 16. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

REL 28

Topics in the Study of Islam

This course will focus on a particular topic in Islamic studies, with an emphasis on the most recent research in that field. The topic will vary with each offering, so the course may be taken more than once. Sample topics include: “The Islam of Morocco,” “Shi’ism,” and “Problems in Popular Islam.” Desirable background: A previous course on Islamic Religion or Islamicate history and culture, or permission of the instructor. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

29.03 Transnational Muslim Feminisms: History, Religion, Praxis
This course introduces students to the diversity of feminist approaches on a transnational scale, by examining the movements, activism, media, literature, and Islamic debates produced in predominantly Muslim countries and beyond. We will interrogate concepts of transnationalism, feminism and modernity in terms of historical developments, theoretical usage, the context of colonialism, Islamic theologies, and the modern Muslim nation states. We will explore similarities and differences in women's experiences and feminist methodologies across global Muslim contexts. Course materials will be made up of several primary sources in translation that deal with intersectional issues such as religious and cultural practices, educational systems, politics, race and racism, socioeconomic class, legal rights for men and women, and marriage and the family. Open to all clesses. Dist: INT, SOC; WCult: NW.

28.04 Gender in Islam
"Is Islam sexist?" "What does Islam really say about women?" This course seeks to dismantle the premises of these questions by asking who speaks for Islam, what makes something Islamic, and how are gender and gender roles constructed in Islamic texts and Muslim thought. We will make critical study of the constructions of gender, feminity, masculinity, sexuality, gender relations, marriage and divorce in classical and modern Islamic texts. In asking how Islamic notions of gender are constructed, we will examine both the roles religious texts have played in shaping Muslim life and how Muslim life in its cultural diversity affects readings of religious texts. We will read works of Muslim thought on gender relations in their historical contexts and in relation to one another. Through in-class discussions, critical reading exercises, and short essay assignments, students will strengthen their literacy on global gender issues, study religio-historical ideas on gender, analyze the role of texts in shaping gender in society, and vice versa. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

REL 29

Kierkegaard and Religious Existentialism

A study of the thought, writings, and influence of Søren Kierkegaard, who is widely acknowledged to be the founding figure of existentialism. The course will examine the development of Kierkegaard’s philosophical and religious thinking and will follow its influence on both religious and non-religious thinkers, including Martin Buber, Reinhold Niebuhr, Jean Paul Sartre, and Simone de Beauvoir. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

REL 30

Sacred Cities

This course will explore the ways in which different religious traditions shaped and have been shaped by the sacred cities in which they are established.  We will explore the way in which local topography, communities, and tradition shaped the sacred urban landscape, and how the local holy places of the city influence the larger religious tradition of which it is a part. Dist: TMV (unless otherwise indicated); WCult: Varies.

REL 31 (Identical to WGST 43.2 and CLST 11)

Sex, Celibacy, and the Problem of Purity: Asceticism and the Human Body in Late Antiquity

Late Antiquity (c. 300-500 C.E.) was a time when Christians struggled to understand how gender, family life, and religion could intermesh. Did virgins get to heaven faster than those who marry? Can a chaste man and woman live together without succumbing to lust? Were men holier than women? What about women who behaved like men? This course examines the changing understanding of the body, marriage, sexuality, and gender within Christianity through reading saints’ lives, letters, polemical essays, and legal texts. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV.

REL 32

Topics in the Christian Tradition

In this course we will engage in an in-depth study of a particular issue in Christian history or Christian ideology. The topic will change with each offering, and students may therefore take this course more than once. Sample topics include “Intellectuals and Superstition: The Creation of the Witch in Medieval Europe” and “Heretics and Inquisitors: The Cathar Religion in Medieval Europe.” Open to all classes. Dist: TMV.

32.06 Jewish Views of Christianity (Identical to JWST 36.02)
Historians know a great deal about anti-Semitism, but this course will reverse the gaze and examine Jewish views of Christianity. When and why did Judaism and Christianity divide? We will read ancient Jewish versions of the Gospels, medieval Jewish polemics, and Jewish appropriations of Christian imagery. We'll conclude with modern Jewish scholarship on Christian origins, as well as Jewish responses to Christianity in light of the Holocaust and the post-war efforts at ecumenical relations. Dist: TMV.

REL 33

Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Age of the Crusades

This course will focus on the interactions of the three major religious communities of the medieval Mediterranean—Christians, Jewish, and Muslim—beginning with the First Crusade in 1096 and ending with the arrival of the Black Death in 1347. By examining topics such as pilgrimage, crusade, and jihad, the status of minority communities, and intellectual life, we will explore how Christians, Jews, and Muslims clashed, cooperated, influenced, and misunderstood each other. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV.

REL 34

Christianity and Conversion in the Northern World: Vikings, Celts, and Anglo-Saxons

This course explores the transformation of Christianity in the early medieval period. The conversion of ‘barbarian’ peoples in the northwest Europe between 400-1000 meant Christianity had to adapt to a new environment—one without the Roman Empire, without cities, with different languages, cultures, and notions of relations between the human and divine worlds. By exploring the impact the conversion of the people of Ireland, England, and Iceland had on Christianity, we will understand how ancient Christianity was transformed into medieval Christianity. We will also explore the appeal this Mediterranean religion had for communities that surrounded the much colder North Sea. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV.

REL 35

Religion and Science

The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of current developments in the natural sciences and religious or theological interpretations of them. Emphasis is given to understanding an emerging consonance between religion and science in contrast to models of dissonance and conflict, or independence and dialogue. Particular attention is given to (1) evolutionary biology, (2) relativity physics, (3) cosmology, and (4) process theology and philosophy. Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Dist: TMV.

REL 36

Religion and Literature

This course explores through creative discussion, close reading, and texts that parallel theological perspective with literary exemplification, the fruitful interplay between religion and fiction. Students are encouraged to draw on other—and not necessarily Christian—religious traditions, if they so choose. The format is that of a book club. Lectures will provide significant biographical, contextual, and stylistic information. The professor will also assist students in elucidating the theological elements informing the literary works. The students will be responsible for coming to class with questions, comments, and quotations to support their assertions. Open to all classes. Dist: LIT.

REL 37

Animal Rights in Religion, Film, and Literature

This interdisciplinary, interfaith course looks at issues of ethics and religion in our environment as they are illustrated through the circumstances of flora and fauna today.  Animal rights are discussed; animal advocacy is encouraged as part of the enduring heritage of the great teachings of many religions. This course will satisfies one of the three electives required for the Ethics Institute minor requirement. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

REL 38

Spiritual Autobiography

This course begins with the first spiritual autobiography in the West, Augustine's Confessions, as a standpoint from which to compare and contrast other spiritual journeys.  Topics subsequently to be studied include excerpts of personal accounts about experiential faith; a panoramic overview of conversion narratives, among them African American, Native American and Muslim; and contextual information about the historical development of these various religious perspectives. Students will engage in journaling. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV.

REL 39

Magic, Madwomen, and Mystics: an alternative Christian spirituality

This course compares and contrasts magical practices and mysticism in (primarily) Western Europe from pre-Christian Judaism to the present day. An alternative voice to institutionalized piety emerges, one that is often (although not always) associated with those culturally marginalized, including women. The focus is interdisciplinary:  we examine spiritual literature, poetry, artwork (including the engravings of William Blake), early modern music, and some hymns. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

REL 40

Topics in the Religions of India

This course will focus in some depth on a particular aspect of religion in India—for example, a particular religion, sect, time period, body of literature, type of religion, or reli-gious movement. The topic will change with each offering, and students may take the course more than once. Sample topics include: “Gods, Demons, and Monkeys: The Ramayana Epic of India,” “Women In Indian Religions,” and “Modern Hinduism.” Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

40.01 Gods, Demons, and Monkeys: The Ramayana Epic of India
The ancient Indian epic known as the Ramayana is a stirring, martial tale of gods, demons, and monkeys.  Beginning with the classical Sanskrit version composed as early as 200 B.C.E., India has produced hundreds of different versions of the Ramayana, in different languages and media, with different agendas and for different audiences.  We will examine this epic tradition in all of its complexity, making ample use of different forms of media. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

40.02 Visual Cultures of Tibet and the Himalaya (Identical to AMES 35)
How are traditions represented and re-interpreted in the making of cultural and national identity? This course draws from religious studies, art history, and anthropology to study how Tibetan and Himalayan identities are made and negotiated through art, Buddhist ritual objects and performances, temples, museums, and cities. Our case studies will extend from Tibet to Bhutan, Mustang, Tibetan exile communities in India and Nepal, and the circulation of Tibetan objects around America and worldwide. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

40.03. Lives of the Saints
In this course we will explore how moral values in South Asia are exemplified, challenged, and embodied through the lives of saintly figures both ancient and modern. Relying on primary texts from Hindu, Jain and Buddhist traditions of India, Nepal, and Tibet, we will discuss themes including karma, devotion, moral ambiguity, gender, and the making of selves through narrative. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

40.04. Hindu Hierarchies: Caste in Theory and Practice (Identical to AMES 36)
This course will investigate two aspects of India’s “peculiar institution”: caste hierarchy as lived in historical and present-day Hindu communities; and discourses of caste as conceived, justified, and reformed within Hindu thought. We will situate the classical Brahmanical formulation of orthodox caste dharma against alternatives advanced by subaltern voices, exponents of Bhakti devotionalism, and modern critics including Gandhi and Ambedkar. Models of caste influential in the social science literature will also receive critical attention. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

40.05. God's Fools: Saints, Music, and Mysticism in South Asia (Identical to AMES 42.09)
Charismatic teachers - Hindu and Sikh gurus and Muslim pirs - have long been prominent as interlocutors between religious communities in South Asia. This course will examine how this cross-pollination produced a mutual flowering in the early modern period. Hindu devotionalism and Islamic mysticism - Bhakti and Sufism - developed kindred concepts and attitudes, including a complementary mistrust of institutional authorities, a fondness for rhetorical paradox, and an emphasis on eroticism and mystical ecstasy. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

40.06 Food and Religion in South Asia: The Raw, the Cooked, and the Leftovers
Food—what people consume, share, offer their gods, and cast off—commands intense attention in South Asian religions. It’s one way Hindus define themselves in relation to others (including other Hindus). It’s coded with values like purity and pollution, subtlety and grossness. And it embodies histories, not only of migration, trade, and colonialism but also of ethicized actions—karmas. In India, “you are what you eat” has been a truism for thousands of years. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.


REL 41

Readings in Buddhist Literature

This course will focus in some depth on a particular body of Buddhist literature from a specific region of the Buddhist world, such as sacred scriptures, philosophical treatises, narrative texts, ritual texts, and sacred biographies. Special attention will be paid to a close and careful reading of the texts, as well as to placing them within their proper historical, social, and cultural contexts. The topic will change with each offering, and students may take the course more than once. Sample topics include: “Indian Buddhist Narratives,” “Mahayana Buddhist Texts,” “Chan/Zen Tradition,” and “Tantra in East Asia.” Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

41.01 Mahayana Buddhist Texts
An in-depth, discussion-based exploration of the rich, imaginative world of Mahayana Buddhist literature, including both philosophical treatises and religious scriptures (including the Heart, Diamond, Lotus, and Vimalakirti Sutras). Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

REL 42 (Identical to WGST 43.4)

Goddesses of India

This course will use both elite and popular Hindu religious texts in conjunction with contemporary sociological and anthropological accounts, scholarly analyses, visual art, and film to explore the diverse identities and roles of India’s many goddesses, both ancient and modern. Special emphasis will also be given to the relationship between goddesses and women. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

REL 46

Daoism: Transformations of Tradition

In this course we will explore the historical developments and transformations of Daoism from its ancient roots to present-day practices. We will begin by looking at early traditions of immortality seekers and self-cultivation and at the religious and philosophical ideas in the ancient Chinese texts of the Laozi, Zhuangzi, and Guanzi. We will also examine recent archaeological findings, imperial religious practices, and the complex interaction of Daoism with Buddhism. We will in addition look at contemporary Daoist practices in China and Taiwan. Along the way we will devote special attention to meditation and divination techniques; alchemy and sexual techniques for transcendence; the place of women and the feminine in Daoism. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

REL 47

Buddhism in China

A study of the advent of Buddhism in China, its accommodating yet transforming response to Chinese traditions and values, the emergence of the authentically Chinese schools of T’ien-T’ai, Hua-yen, Ch’an, and Pure Land Buddhism, and the enduring Bud-dhist heritage of China. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

REL 48

Body and Sex in Chinese Religions

In this course we will explore how different traditions in China conceptualized the relationship between the human body and the universe, and how individuals can attain immortality and transcendence. After examining different conceptions of the human body in traditional China, we will focus on sexual practices advocated by the traditions of immortality seekers, Daoism, and esoteric Buddhism as ways to enlightenment and transcendence. In our explorations we will look at the earliest records of sexual practices found in tombs of the 3rd century B.C.E. and examine Daoist sexual initiation rites and secret rites practiced by emperors. We will consider how notions of cosmic powers and forces are expressed in sexual rituals and how society views such practices. We will also compare Chinese notions of the body and of sexual practices with those found in West. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

REL 49

Topics in East Asian Religions

In this course students will read and discuss the latest research on one of the religions of East Asia, or a particular sect, movement, or time period in the history of East Asian religions. The topic will change with each offering. Thus, students may take this course more than once. Sample topics include: “Literature and Religion in China,” “Politics and Religion in China,” and “The Body in Japanese Religion.” Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

49.01 Apocalyptic Thought
In this class we will examine ideas about the cataclysmic end of the world, possible ways to survive such calamities, or to bring them forth appear in several religious traditions in East Asia. This course examines a variety of such eschatological and salvific ideas, beginning with Daoist and Buddhist scriptures in medieval China, proceeding through various religious rebel movements to modern cults such as Aum Shinrikyo in Japan and Falun Gong in China. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

REL 50

LGBT Religious History and Experience: Queering the Spirit

This course examines religion as experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual people. It adopts a comparative historical perspective in considering the multiplicity of LGBT religious identities that have existed and continue to thrive around the world. It also traces the emergence of gender categories and norms in a range of different societies, beginning with our own. Special attention is paid to traditions in which LGBT people have been valued as priests, healers, and leaders. WCult: CI.

REL 51 (Identical to WGST 44.5 and LATS 35)

The Virgin of Guadalupe: From Tilma to Tattoo

Beginning with her precursors in the Old and New World, this course approaches Guadalupe as a tool with which to pry open questions central to Mexican and Chicano/a identity. For some, she is a mother-figure with characteristics once attributed to pre-Columbian goddesses; for others, she is a feminist champion of political revolution. This course concentrates on the most compelling contexts in which Guadalupe has been called on to negotiate religious, racial, sexual, and national identity. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: CI.

REL 52 (Identical to LACS 30.4)

Religion and Music in Cuba

This course tells the story of Cuba's religious formations through their musical genres. Readings draw from several disciplines to illuminate the role that music plays in celebrating deities, ancestors, and community, in such traditions as the all-male secret society Abakuá; French-Haitian Tumba Francesa; the "drums of affliction" Lucumí and Palo Monte; and Havana-based hip-hop. We examine the relationship between dance, spirit possession, and mythology, and how nation, race, and gender have been constructed through music. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: CI.

REL 53

Religion, Healing, and Medicine

This class explores a range of religious approaches and traditional therapeutic responses to bodily suffering, with an eye towards examining the way medical cultures reflect and construct religious identity. Most examples of healing practices tobe discussed are drawn from religious communities and ethnic groups active in the contemporary United States. While addressing such topical issues as reproduction, sexuality, substance abuse, and dieting, the course also analyzes the taboos,values, and rituals of Western biomedicine. Open to all classes. Dist: INT, SOC; WCult: CI.

REL 55

Ancient Egyptian Religion

The great civilization of ancient Egypt, which spanned a period of almost 3000 years, has left us a wealth of literary, artistic, architectural, and funerary religious remains. This course will focus on three major aspects of Egypt’s religious heritage: (1) the pantheon and the myths and stories about Egypt’s gods; (2) temple complexes; and (3) tombs, especially the tombs of royalty and other nobles. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

REL 56 (Identical to WGST 43.3)

Women and the Bible

As contemporary Jewish and Christian communities of faith face the question of the role of women within their traditions, many turn to the Bible for answers. Yet the biblical materials are multivalent, and their position on the role of women unclear. This course intends to take a close look at the biblical tradition, both the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and the New Testament, to ask what the Bible does – and does not say – about women. Yet the course is called “Women and the Bible,” not “Women in the Bible,” and implicit in this title is a second goal of the course: not only to look at the Bible to see what it actually says about women but also to look at differing ways that modern feminist biblical scholars have engaged in the enterprise of interpreting the biblical text. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: CI.

REL 57

Readings in the Biblical Tradition

In this course we will engage in an in-depth study of a particular biblical book or of a particular biblical motif. The topic will change with each offering, and students may therefore take this course more than once. Sample topics include “The Exodus Tradition,” “Job and the Joban Tradition,” and “The End of the World.” Open to all classes. Dist: TMV.

57.06 History of Heaven
This course presents an examination of the origins and early evolution of images of the afterlife among the ancient peoples of the Mediterranean basin and Near East. The course will focus on ancient Israelite, biblical, and early Jewish and Christian images. Later developments of these images within Western religious will also be discussed. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV.

REL 58

Topics in the Bible and Archaeology

In this course we will study the relationship between various biblical texts and archeological discoveries from the ancient Near East, including ancient Israel, and from the Roman Empire during the period of Christian origins. Particular attention will be paid to the ways in which archeological data can be used and abused in attempts to understand the Bible better. The specific topic of the course will change with each offering, and students may therefore take this class more than once. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV.

REL 60

Reformations: Protestant and Catholic

This course examines the theological, social, psychological, and cultural motors driving change within the institutional church during the 16 and early 17th centuries, the Protestant challenge to Catholicism, and the Catholic response. Manifestations of the need for change are found in great literature of the era and also exemplified in art and film. Scope spans Europe and the Colonies. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

REL 61 (Identical to AAAS 82)

Religion and the Civil Rights Movement

An examination of the importance of religion in the drive for civil rights during the 1950s and 1960s. The course will look at the role of activists, clergy, sermons, and music in forging the consensus in favor of civil rights. Open to all classes. Dist: SOC; WCult: CI.

REL 62

Religion, Politics, and the Presidency

This course examines the intricate relationship between church and state, religion and politics, throughout American history, beginning with the founders and how they have been interpretted - perhaps misinterpretted - throughout history.  We'll look at the contentious election of 1800, examine the faith of several presidents, and then explore the rise and the influence of the Religious Right in recent years, concluding with a retrospective on religion and presidential politics over the past half century. Open to all. Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

REL 63


A survey of the history and theology of Mormonism, one of America's indigenous religions.  We'll read selections from the Book of Mormon and chart the history of the movement, including its contentious relationship with the federal government.  We'll look, finally, at some of the cultural expressions of Mormonism and examine the ways that Mormonism has transformed itself from what was essentially an outlaw religion in the nineteenth century to the embodiment of American ideals. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; Wcult: W

REL 64


A survey of the history and theology of evangelicalism, America's folk religion, from its origins in the confluence of the "three P's" - Puritanism, Presbyterianism, and Pietism - in the Great Awakening to the construction of the evangelical subculture following the Scopes Trial to the present.  We'll examine evangelical millennial ideas as well as attitudes toward women, minorities, society, and politics. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: CI.

REL 65

Sports, Ethics & Religion

A survey of the origins and development of the culture of athletic competition in America, with roots in the "Muscular Christianity" movement of nineteenth-century England. We'll examine the peculiar (religious?) passion that Americans invest in sports as well as the role that sports has played as an engine for social change. We look, finally, at some of the ethical issues surrounding organized sports. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

REL 66 (Identical to AAAS 42)

Women, Religion, and Social Change in Africa

This introductory, interdisciplinary course focuses on women's religious ideas, concerns, actions, rituals, and experiences in African societies from a comparative, historical, and gendered perspective. We will look at women's experiences of social change in indigenous African religions, the impact of the new religions of Christianity and Islam, colonialism, and the experience of post-colonial societies. Topics include women's prophetic movements, religious critiques of underdevelopment, women's initiation, conversion and reconversion. Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: NW.

REL 67

Religion and Imperialism

An examination of the impact of imperial expansion on the religious systems of the conquered. The course will focus primarily on the religious consequences of European expansion in North America and Africa but will also examine Jewish responses to Roman imperialism at the time of Jesus. We shall examine the attempts of traditional religious leaders to explain and control the imperial presence as well as the development of new religious movements that grew out of spiritual crises of conquest. This course will examine various types of prophetic movements and revitalization movements that developed in response to conquest as people sought to preserve their cultural identities in the face of their forced integration into imperial systems.  Issues of conversion to religions associated with the conquerors as well as the challenges of secular culture will be discussed. Open to all. Dist: SOC or INT; WCult: CI.

REL 70

Foreign Study in Religion I

Credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed a religion course at the University of Edinburgh while a member of the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in Religion. Prerequisite: one course in Religion. Dist: TMV.

REL 71

Foreign Study in Religion II

Credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed a religion course at the University of Edinburgh while a member of the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in Religion. Prerequisite: one course in Religion. Dist: TMV.

REL 74

Special Topics in Religion—Intermediate Level

The contents of this course will vary from term to term. When offered as the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program (D.F.S.P.) course, it is taught by the Dartmouth Faculty Director of the annual Religion Department Foreign Study Program at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. See Off Campus Programs for applications and more information. Dist: TMV (unless otherwise indicated). WCult: Varies.